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Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum in contact with the fetus of a sick mother affected with syphilis through the placenta.

A healthy placenta is a filter to pale treponem.

  • For the penetration of spirochetes in the fetus requires the prior defeat of syphilis placenta to a subsequent breach of the placental barrier. Infection of the fetus through the placenta can occur either when the pale treponema are entered in the child’s body as the emboli through the umbilical vein or when the pale treponema penetrate into the lymphatic system of the fetus through the umbilical cord lymph gap.
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Kidney Failure

Kidneys perform one of the most important functions: excretion of metabolic products, toxic substances and other different not particularly useful compounds. Furthermore, this body is involved in providing the acid-base equilibrium plasma.

  • Naturally, kidney disease, a negative impact on the entire urinary system. A disease of this kind there are so many. There are as congenital diseases and acquired diseases.

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Kidney Diseases

Symptoms of kidney disease in adults and the treatments of kidney diseases are discussed in this article.

  • All the symptoms of kidney disease are associated with changes in urine: color separation process, the smell. In a normal person during the day releases from one liter to 1800 ml. urine. Usually a person allocates 80% of urine during the day, from 8-00 to 20-00. Deviations from these figures indicate the presence of kidney problems. All the symptoms of kidney disease are associated with changes in urine: color separation process, the smell. In a normal person during the day releases from one liter to 1800 ml. urine. Usually a person allocates 80% of urine during the day, from 8-00 to 20-00. Deviations from these figures indicate the presence of kidney problems.

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Erosive haemorrhagic gastritis

Due to its persistent and prolonged flow erosive gastritis often ends complications. Some of them are bleeding from the stomach mucosa eroded. These are called erosive gastritis hemorrhagic. The mechanism of their development is related to the size, depth and location of erosion. Surface defects are located in the front, back, sides and bottom of stomach bleeding is extremely rare. The most dangerous in this respect are numerous and extensive erosion, extending to great depth. The most dangerous area is the localization of the lesser curvature due to the location in the area of ​​large vessels and high-intensity general circulation. (more…)

Drug overdose

According to public data, in the United States every 19 minutes one person dies from an overdose of the drug. Meanwhile, the Office for the Control Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines the risk of overdose among different groups of people:

  • – Men are twice as likely to die from an overdose of women’s medications;
  • – More people die from an overdose at the age of 45 to 49 years;
  • – Less common cases of overdoses among teens under 15 years old, they are much less likely to abuse drugs.

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New or old trusted drugs?

Over the past 8 years, American pharmaceutical companies spent more than $ 50 billion in the search for new drugs, but had to admit that the most innovative products were produced decades ago. With each passing year it becomes more and more difficult to develop a radically new, effective and safe remedy that on the properties surpass existing analogues. (more…)

Blood-brain barrier

Scientists have been able to commit such a break through the blood-brain barrier. (BBB)

  • A group of Canadian doctors from Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre for the first time was able to deliver chemotherapy drugs directly into the brain using ultrasound, says CTV News.
  • Doctors first entered the drug intravenously with mikrosokopicheskim air bubbles. After doctors by means of ultrasound bubble forced to contract and expand in the required areas of the brain.
  • Thus it was possible to create gaps in the network cells of the BBB. The latter is a kind of protection against microbes and toxins filter between the central nervous system and circulatory system.
  • Thanks to the “holes”, doctors were able to deliver the drug directly into the brain of the patient. After the air bubble remains in the circulatory system and is absorbed entering the lungs. A hole formed in the blood-brain barrier without interference disappears after 8-12 hours.

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Drugs side effects

Diseases due to developing treatments- called iatrogenic. The most famous of these include allergic reactions are: liver disease and drug nephritis (kidney disease). All the unwanted effects that may occur while taking medicines or that are listed in the summary in the “Side Effects”. Among the adverse effects decided to allocate significant and clinically insignificant. (more…)

Antibiotics

Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin / clavulanate

  • Amoxicillin and clavulanate is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the maximum plasma concentration observed after 60-90 minutes, and 40-120 minutes, respectively, after oral administration of the separate funds. The combination of both agents does not affect their pharmacokinetics. The average maximum concentration after a single dose of amoxicillin / clavulanate 250/125 mg in a dose of 4.2 mg / l for amoxicillin and 2.6 mg / L of clavulanic acid. (more…)

Cholesterol

What is cholesterol and should we fight with it or not?

Currently, cardio – vascular diseases occupy a leading place in the structure of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As we know the risk of a heart disease has each person and it is determined by many factors. These factors include age, gender (males are more susceptible to cardio – vascular disease), hypertension, smoking, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, genetics, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardio – vascular disease. (more…)