Any qualified specialist who treats diseases of the genitourinary system, says that kidney problems can be “read” on the patient’s face. Most likely, kidney disease cause external changes in the patient’s face. Such people have swelling of the face, “bags” under the eyes, gray skin color and its excessive dryness. It was under his eyes, first of all, there are clinical signs of renal work.
How is the examination of the kidneys
In addition to the visual inspection of the patient, the doctor, for a more precise examination of the kidneys holds palpation organ. In the presence of any disease, the kidneys are well palpated or lowered down. In this examination, the patient lies on his back or side, but you can palpate the kidneys and in the standing position.
Urologist puts one hand on the front wall of the abdomen and the other on the back of the patient. To, examination of the kidneys to be effective, you need to relax your abs and breathe using the abdominal breathing. With this type of breathing occurs reflex relaxation of muscles as you exhale, during which the urologist performs a thorough palpation.
Another effective way to palpation of the kidneys and of violations in their work is called – to check symptom 12 ribs. This method is available to any doctor and does not require special tools for its conduct.
The bottom line of this study is that the specialist puts his left hand on the level of the location of 12 pairs of ribs back and palm of the right hand produces tapping on it. If the there are sharp pains in the kidneys, this clinic indicates the presence of inflammation (pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis).
However, we must remember that pain can occur if the patient has osteochondrosis and myositis. In order not to confuse the pain in these diseases with kidney disease, immediately after tapping is recommended to pass a urine test patient. The presence in urine of abnormal inclusions or impurities to help make the correct diagnosis.
Methods of examination of the kidneys
To make a correct diagnosis when examining kidney specialist assigns such studies:
- Renal ultrasound (a highly informative method and also completely safe);
- Computer tomography of the kidneys;
- Study urinalysis;
- Urography kidney, using a contrast agent.
All of these methods allow you to see the full picture of the destruction of renal function and identify the cause. For example, if an ultrasound is visible contracted kidney, it testifies to such disease as hypertension or other serious pathologies excretory organs.
- Using ultrasound can detect the presence of sand or stones in the ureter or kidney. The use of Doppler ultrasound in help assess the condition of the renal blood flow.
- Most often during the ultrasound examination of the kidneys, and check the condition of the bladder that is also very important in the presence of voiding function.
- When using such diagnostic methods, such as tomography and magnetic resonance procedure, it is possible not only to identify foci of inflammation and lesions, but a detailed study of location and shape of the kidneys.
In appointing urography with contrast agent can estimate the permeability of the urinary ducts.
- To determine the functional capacity of the kidneys is carried out by various methods Urine and blood chemistry. In the appointment of urinalysis examine its color, the density, the presence of sediment, transparency and microscopic examination.
- In the analysis of urine on Nechiporenko, appointed to collect midstream urine in an amount of 5-10 ml. With this content analysis reveal amounts of leukocytes, erythrocytes and the cylinder 1 mL of urine.
- Analysis of Zimnitsky characterized by collection of urine during the day. Prepare 8 jars, and every 3 hours collected urine into the right jar. It helps to study the density and the amount of urine, so you can judge the work of the kidneys.
Renography radioisotope method gives an indication of the absorptive and secretory functions of the kidneys. The essence of the surveys kidney is administered to a patient that isotope which is absorbed from the blood and is absorbed by the kidneys, and then excreted in urine. The results of this study are presented special curve, by which one can judge the status of the kidneys.
Appointment of additional research is required for each individual case separately, depending on the disease and the patient’s clinical features, where he turned.