What is cirrhosis?
Cirrhosis of the liver – an extensive organ damage in which there is gradual destruction of the tissues and its replacement by a scar. As a result, replacement of the formation of various size units, radically changing the structure of the liver. The result is the gradual decline in the functioning of the body, up to a total loss of working capacity.
This leads to a deterioration in the quality of life of the patient and its subsequent destruction.
It is the liver cleanses the body of harmful substances, synthesize fats, carbohydrates, proteins involved in digestion, produces albumin, and so on. Therefore, damage the liver lobules, consisting of hepatocytes and rebirth – a terrible disease for the body, both men and women.
This disease is widespread throughout the world. According to recent figures, each year from this disease kills up to 300,000 people, with an increase in mortality has been steadily increasing. Despite all medical advances over the past 10 years, the incidence of deaths from cirrhosis increased, the increase was an impressive figure – 12%. In addition, the same percentage of people with a chronic addiction to alcohol have a history of the disease, but it occurs without symptoms.
The most common abnormality is diagnosed in men than in women. Strict age limits are not available, but the disease affects mostly people aged 40 years and older.
How long can you live with cirrhosis of the liver?
The disease has a different outlook. With adequate treatment, which has been initiated in a timely manner, it is possible to stop the progression of the disease process. Playing the role as the presence of comorbidities, complications, lifestyle, human, stage of cirrhosis.
When preserved hepatocyte functionality, if the person reviewing your lifestyle and adhere to therapeutic regimen prescribed by your doctor, the survival rate for seven years or more, 50% of the total number of patients. Such a favorable prognosis is appropriate in relation to the compensated form of the disease.
When subcompensated form the average life expectancy is about 5 years. This is due to the fact that hepatocytes progressively depleted and their number becomes insufficient for normal functioning of the organ.
If the patient is at the stage of decompensation, is not more than 40% of people live three years. This is due to the development of serious complications that are often incompatible with life.
In addition, there are specially designed system for calculating the forecast for the survival of cirrhosis according to certain criteria. Among them: Forecast System Child-Pugh, Cox proportional hazards model and others. All of them are based on certain indicators of health of the person with cirrhosis (etiology of the disease, the effectiveness of treatment, the presence of jaundice, neurological disorders, ascites, esophageal varices, and so on. D.) And allow a more or less faithful forecast in each case.
The first signs of liver cirrhosis:
Suspected presence of the disease on the early signs are not always possible, as in 20% of cases it occurs latent and does not manifest itself. Moreover, in 20% the pathology is detected only after the death of a person. However, the remaining 60% disease does manifest itself.
Therefore, among the early symptoms that indicate cirrhosis, are the following:
- Intermittent pain localized in the right upper quadrant. It tends to increase after the amplified physical activities or after taking fatty and fried foods, alcohol drinks.
- In the mouth, especially in the morning there is a feeling of bitterness and dryness.
- Man can disturb periodic stool disorders, increased flatulence.
- The patient loses some weight, becomes irritable, gets tired quickly.
- Some forms of the disease, such as cirrhosis Postnecrotic, manifests itself in the form of jaundice in the early stages of development.
- In some cases, the disease declares itself sharply and there are no early warning signs.
Other symptoms of liver cirrhosis:
The main symptoms of the disease is increasing as it progresses:
- Pain in the right side are enhanced due to the expansion of the capsule of the liver, may have the character of colic. When concomitant hypokinetic dyskinesia they grow, they are aching in nature, accompanied by a feeling of heaviness.
- The patient experiences nausea, often accompanied by vomiting. Vomit may contain impurities of blood, indicating that the venous bleeding of the stomach and esophagus.
- In connection with the accumulation in the blood of excess of bile acids in a patient there is itching of the skin.
- Loss of body weight, up to exhaustion.
- Reduced muscle tone, they atrophy, loss of strength.
- Purchase jaundiced skin, peeling it. Severe jaundice is a sign of the final stage of the disease. Initially painted sclera eyes, oral mucosa, palms and soles, and then the whole body. This is due to the inability to metabolize bilirubin hepatocytes.
- The emergence xanthelasma – spots with the lipid component, localized mainly in the upper eyelids.
- Fingers thicken at the end, take the form of drum sticks, the skin around the nail holes blushes.
- The joints swell and start to hurt.
- The veins in the abdomen expand.
- On the upper part of the body doctors detect spider veins. A characteristic feature of cirrhosis – telangiectasia never formed below the navel area. During the acute stage of the disease becomes larger stars, they become more visible.
- The edge of the nose and the corners of the eyes covered angioma.
- Redness of the palms, feet less.
- Language swells, acquires a bright color.
- Men begin to grow breasts and genitals atrophy function. Secondary sexual characteristics are reduced: fall pubic hair in the armpits.
Ascites – one of the late complications of cirrhosis is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
A person becomes unhealthy shade cheekbones stand out clearly, with the salivary glands swell and dilate the capillaries on the face, giving it a red color.Limbs lose weight, the stomach, on the contrary, it bulges forward.Often there bleeding from the nose. Spleen increases.
There are clear violations of the nervous activity: the patient suffers from sleep disturbance, deterioration of memory function. There is a tremor of the extremities, indifference to what is happening around.