What is cholesterol and how should we fight with it?
- Currently, cardio – vascular diseases occupy a leading place in the structure of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As we know the risk of a heart disease has each person and it is determined by many factors. These factors include age, gender (males are more susceptible to cardio – vascular disease), hypertension, smoking, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, family history, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardio – vascular disease.
What is cholesterol?
- Cholesterol is a lipid which is produced in human liver, as well as a small amount is ingested with certain products: fatty meat, egg yolk, seafood, oils, liver, kidney, brain and others.
- Lipid grease does not dissolve in the blood to reach the blood stream from the cells, it is necessary a “carrier”. The role of transporters operate lipoproteins (Compound proteins (proteins) fat. Lipoproteins are high and low density. On the inner walls of the vessels are low density lipoproteins (LDL). This is the “bad” cholesterol. It forms plaques and due to them the blood is still worse supplying the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients.
A high-density lipoprotein (HDL) – is “good” cholesterol. It is involved in the construction of cells, synthesis of hormones and vitamin D. The liver produces from the “good” cholesterol, bile acid, which help to digest the fats in the intestine. And “good” cholesterol from cells makes excess “bad”. Total cholesterol – is the amount of “good” and “bad”.
Source of “bad” cholesterol – products of animal origin: pork, beef, lamb, bacon, chicken legs and crispy peel, egg yolks, butter, sour cream, hard cheese, cottage cheese, chocolate.
But don’t give up on all of these products! Care should be taken not to sort out the norm. At day requires no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol.
How can you check your cholesterol?
- You can check your cholesterol instantly using Express – diagnosis which is carried out not only in medical institutions, but also in most pharmacies – with the help of a microelectronic device. A drop of blood is applied to the tester, and three minutes later this device which has a size of a cigarette case provides figures on the panel. Total cholesterol should not exceed 5 millimoles per liter of blood. If this figure is higher, it is desirable to conduct further analysis of lipid profiles in the laboratory.
According to current recommendations of the European Association of Cardiology lipid profile should be as follows:
- – Total cholesterol, mmol / L <5.0;
- – Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (bad) mmol / L <3.0;
- – Triglycerides, mmol / L <2.0;
- – HDL cholesterol (good) mmol / L 1.0
How to lower cholesterol?
Cholesterol levels can be lowered. If you want to do this- try to change your lifestyle.
- 1) Keep track of body weight. Better than you, the more cholesterol your body produces. Each increase in body weight increases by 0.5 kg of 2 cholesterol levels.
- 2) Cut the fat -Choose foods that contain polyunsaturated fats that lower cholesterol in the blood.
- 3) Switch to olive oil. Olive oil and some other products, such as nuts, avocado oil, canola beneficial effect on cholesterol.
- 4) Do not eat a lot of eggs. If you want to eat an egg and avoid the risk, reduce their consumption of up to 3 pieces per week. Since cholesterol is found only in the yolk proteins you can eat freely, replace 1 egg with 2 proteins, when, for example, bake something.
- 5) Lean on beans. Nutritious and inexpensive beans and other legumes contain a water-soluble fiber pectin is called, which surrounds cholesterol and removes it from the body. No need to worry about what beans you get bored, because there are many varieties of them: navy beans, kidney beans in the form of soy, black beans, etc., and the ability to lower cholesterol have all legumes.
- 6) Eat more fruits. Fruit may also have the ability to lower cholesterol because of the presence of pectin.
- 7) Add the oats to your every day food. Oats, oatmeal, bran reduce cholesterol like rich fruit pectin.
- 8) A little corn. Corn bran equally effective in reducing cholesterol levels, as oat bran, and bean.
- 9) Carrot reduces cholesterol, since it contains pectin.
- 10) Eat garlic. Researchers have long known that a large amount of raw garlic can reduce harmful fats in the blood.
- 11) Practice. One of the best ways to raise the level of protective HDL – is intense physical exercise, which reduce undesirable LDL.
- 12) Do not smoke. Smokers have low levels of HDL useful – cholesterol.
- 13) Relax! Simple relaxation may lower cholesterol.
Careful adherence to such a diet can achieve lower blood cholesterol by 10-12%.
If the diet for 6-8 weeks will not lead to the desired reduction in total blood cholesterol (less than 5 mmol / L), and the risk of disease caused by atherosclerosis, remains high, the doctor will put the issue of prescribing cholesterol-lowering. Now many of these drugs. But the main thing – not to self-medicate, having heard advertisements about miracle and safe food additives. From supplementation may act only those that contain known food components affecting cholesterol, for example, soluble fiber preparations. But their effectiveness is not higher than the well-established diet, they only help her action.
Drugs used to lower bad cholesterol:
- – Statins Zocor, atorvastatin et al. (Considered the best – 25-45% decrease); – Resin sequestrants (cholestyramine, colestipol);
- – Nicotinic acid and its derivatives (niacin enduratsin) reduced by 30-40%
- – Application of a fibrate (fenofibrate, gemfibrozil).
Of the medicines used to lower blood cholesterol levels, doctors often prescribe statins. These drugs reduce usual doses of cholesterol by 20-40%. Ctatiny not only reduce blood cholesterol, but also facilitates the diseases caused by atherosclerosis, reduce the mortality rate from heart – disease and overall mortality.
Cardiologists around the world are of the opinion that everyone older than 20 years should know your cholesterol level, ie make the necessary blood tests. If elevated cholesterol – it is dangerous as a factor contributing to the development of atherosclerosis and severe cardiovascular diseases.